Kabadi, recognised as the national game of Bangladesh, is played by two teams of 12 players each on a 12.50 metre by 10 metre rectangular court in which a player, while holding his breath, dashes into the opponent team's area, touches some player(s) and/or wrestles out to come back home safely without releasing his breath and thereby scores point for his team.
The team consists of 12 players, but only seven play in the court and the rest stay out of court as extras.
While intruding into the opponents' area the player clearly and audibly repeats the word 'kabadi' without break and without releasing the breath. This is called cant or 'dak' (note).
The time for the match comprises two halves of 20 minutes each and 5 minutes break in between. A team earns one point by throwing out each one player of the opposite side. Two extra points are added as bonus when all players of the opponent party are out. The team that earns the greater number of points in the stipulated time wins the game.
A kabadi match.
Kabadi is a very popular game in Bangladesh, especially in the villages and, for that, it is also called the 'game of rural Bengal'. In some areas kabadi is also known as ha-du-du. But despite its popularity ha-du-du had no definite rules and it used to be played with different rules in different areas. Ha-du-du was given the name kabadi and the status of National Game in 1972.
Bangladesh Amateur Kabadi Federation was formed in 1973. It framed rules and regulations for the game. Bangladesh first played kabadi test in 1974 with a visiting Indian team, which played test matches with the district teams of Dhaka, Tangail, Dinajpur, Jessore, Faridpur and Comilla. In 1978, the Asian Amateur Kabadi Federation was formed at a conference of delegates from Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan in the Indian town of Villai.
In 1979, a return test between Bangladesh and India was held at different places of India including Bombay, Hyderabad, and Punjab. The Asian Kabadi Championship was successfully arranged in 1980 and India emerged as the champion and Bangladesh as the runners-up. Bangladesh became runners-up again in 1985 in Asian Kabadi Championship held in Jaipur, India. The other teams included in the tournament were Nepal, Malaysia and Japan. Kabadi was included for the first time in Asian Games held in Beijing in 1990. Bangladesh took part in it and won silver medal.
The tournaments arranged by Bangladesh Kabadi Federation include National Kabadi Competition, National Youth Kabadi Competition, Premier Kabadi, First Division Kabadi League, Second Division Kabadi League, Independence Day Kabadi Competition, Victory Day Kabadi Competition, Baishakhi Kabadi Fair, Boys' Kabadi Competition and School Kabadi Competition. Teams of different services (Bangladesh Rifles, Police, Fire Service and the Army), clubs, and corporations play kabadi in Bangladesh. Major local clubs that play kabadi include Dilkusha Sporting Club, Dhaka Wanderer's Club, Brothers' Union, Maniknagar Kabadi Club and Bangladesh Bank Club.
(From Banglapedia, the national encyclopedia of Bangladesh)
Kabaddi (sometimes written Kabbadi or Kabadi) is a team sport originally from Pakistan and India.
Two teams occupy opposite halves of a field and take turns sending a "raider" into the other half, in order to win points by tagging or wrestling members of the opposing team; the raider then tries to return to his own half, holding his breath during the whole raid.
Kabaddi is popular throughout South Asia, and has also spread to Southeast Asia, Japan and Iran. It is the national game of Bangladesh where it is known as Haḍuḍu. It is the state game of Punjab, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Maharashtra in India. It is played by the British Army for fun, to keep fit and as an enticement to recruit soldiers from the British Asian community.
Kabaddi at the Asian Games 2006
In the team, or transnational, style of kabaddi, two teams of seven members each occupy opposite halves of a field of 12.5m × 10m (roughly half the size of a basketball court). Each has five supplementary players held in reserve. The game is in 20-minute halves, with a five-minute half-time break during which the teams switch sides.
Teams take turns sending a "raider" to the opposite team's half, where the goal is to tag or wrestle ("confine") members of the opposite team before returning to the home half. Tagged members are "out" and sent off the field.
Meanwhile, defenders must form a chain, for example, by linking hands; if the chain is broken, a member of the defending team is sent off. The goal of the defenders is to stop the raider returning to the home side before taking a breath. If the raider takes a breath before returning, the raider is sent off the field.
A player can also get out by going over a boundary line or part of the body touches the ground outside the boundary, except during a struggle with an opposing team member.
Each time a player is out the opposing team earns a point. A team scores a bonus of two points, called a lona, if the entire opposing team is declared out. At the end of the game, the team with the most points wins.
Matches are staged on age and weight. Six officials supervise a match: one referee, two umpires, a scorer and two assistant scorers.
History and development
The origin of Kabaddi can be traced to pre-historic times when man learned how to defend in groups against animals or attack weaker animals individually or in groups for survival and food. Though Kabaddi is primarily an South Asian game, not much is known about the origin of this game. It was probably invented to ward off group attacks. The game was popular in southern Asia in different forms under different names. A dramatized version of the Mahabharata has made an analogy of the game to a tight situation faced by a character called "Abhimaneu", heir of the Pandava kings, when surrounded by the enemy.
Buddhist literature speaks of the Gautam Buddha playing Kabaddi. History reveals that princes played to display their strength. The game, known as Hu-Tu-Tu in Western India, Ha-Do-Do in Eastern India and Bangladesh, Chedugudu in Southern India and Kaunbada in Northern India, has changed through the ages. Modem Kabaddi is a synthesis of the game played in various forms under different names.
There is a popular belief that Kabaddi originated in the South Indian State of Tamil Nadu. The story of origination of Kabaddi begins by hitting and running of a boy for a candy. The boy who was hit chased the boy who hit him, and hit him back and ran away and it goes on this way. Holding the breath while chasing was an added element when the game evolved. There are various names to this game. KABADDI (Tamil), SADUGUDU (Tamil), GUDUGUDU (Tamil), PALINJADUGUDU (Tamil) and SADUGOODATTHI (Tamil). The word Kabaddi could have originated from the Tamil words KAI (hand), PIDI (catch).
Kabaddi received international exposure during the 1936 Berlin Olympics, demonstrated by Hanuman Vyayam Prasarak Mandal, Amaravati, Maharashtra. The game was introduced in the Indian Olympic Games at Calcutta in 1938. In 1950 the All India Kabaddi Federation came into existence and compiled standard rules. The Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India (AKFI) was founded in 1973. After formation of the Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India, the first men's nationals were held in Madras (re-named Chennai), while the women's were in Calcutta in 1955.The AKFI has given new shape to the rules and has the right to modify them. The Asian Kabaddi Federation was founded under the chairmanship of Mr. Janardan Singh Gehlot.
Asian Amateur Kabaddi Federation is now Headed By Mr. Janardan Singh Gehlot as President and Mr. Muhammad Sarwar as Secretary General.
Kabaddi was introduced and popularized in Japan in 1979. The Asian Amateur Kabaddi Federation sent Prof. Sundar Ram of India to tour Japan for two months to introduce the game.
In 1979, a return test between Bangladesh and India was held at different places of India including Mumbai, Hyderabad, and Punjab. The Asian Kabaddi Championship was arranged in 1980 and India emerged as champion and Bangladesh runner-up. Bangladesh became runner-up again in 1985 in the Asian Kabaddi Championship held in Jaipur, India. The other teams in the tournament were Nepal, Malaysia and Japan. The game was included for the first time in the Asian Games in Beijing in 1990. India, China, Japan, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Bangladesh took part. India won the gold medal and has won gold at the following three Asian Games in Hiroshima in 1994, Bangkok in 1998 and Busan in 2002. India won the gold medal in the 2006 Asian Games at Doha.
Attempts to popularize kabaddi in Great Britain saw British TV network Channel 4 commission a programme dedicated to the sport. The show, Kabaddi, on Channel 4 in the early 1990s, failed to capture viewers despite fixtures such as West Bengal Police versus the Punjab. Kabaddi was axed in 1992, but not before its presenter Krishnan Guru-Murthy suffered a collapsed lung while participating in the sport.
In the 1998 Asian games the Indian Kabaddi team defeated Pakistan in a thrilling final match at Bangkok (Thailand). The chief coach of the team was former kabaddi player and coach Flt. Lt. S P Singh.
The first World Kabaddi Championship, was in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, when 14,000 at the Copps Coliseum watched top players from India, Pakistan, Canada, England and the United States. The next edition was in Surrey, British Columbia, which hosts the first all-kabaddi stadium. India has remained world champion since it was included in Asian Games and South Asian Federation games. In 2008 Sukhbir Singh Badal mooted a professional world kabbadi league with sponsorship to attract the best players; this league will be based in India with tournaments in Canada as well. The current Kabaddi Championship team consists of several local Indian players, Himanshu Batta, Ravi Venkataya, Harman Dhaliwal, Kapil Singh and Mayank Gauri.
Kabaddi is now a very popular game and is a regular sport in Asian Games, Asian Indoor Games and Asian Beach Games apart from SAF Games. Kabaddi will be a demonstration sport during Commonwealth Games 2010 at New Delhi.